Glossary

J K Q W X Y Z

A

Acai: A powerful antioxidant berry from Brazil that contains essential fatty and amino acids. It is listed #1 as a Pericone MD superfood.

Acetyl carnitine: The most easily assimilated and stable form of carnitine. Supports energy utilization through fatty acid metabolism in the mitochondria.

Acne: A skin disorder resulting from the action of hormones on the skin’s oil glands (sebaceous glands), which leads to plugged pores and outbreaks of lesions commonly called pimples or zits.

Agave: A naturally low glycemic sweetener similar to honey found in the Agave cactus plant

Alcohol: A few of Perricone MD products do contain alcohol. Please note that alcohol is simply a chemical designation with many different types. While some can be drying, alcohols like cetyl and cetearyl alcohol actually bind moisture. In fact, ‘alcohol-free‘ is irrelevant in many cases as the connotation is that alcohol is bad, but in reality is very helpful. Other alcohols (SD-40) can act as an anti-bacterial and vehicle for other ingredients as it evaporates leaving the actives on the skin.
Alcohol Free: Traditionally means that certain cosmetic products do not contain ethyl alcohol (or grain alcohol). Cosmetic products, however, may contain other alcohols, such as cetyl, stearyl, cetearyl, or lanolin, which are known as fatty alcohols.

AGE formation: Benfotiamine and the Glycation: Advanced Glycation Endproducts: or “AGEs”, are the end result of the complex chemical process through which the structure of proteins is warped by exposure to sugars or by other, much more reactive molecules. AGE chemistry is the cause of the “browning” you see when you roast a chicken or make toast, but the same “browning” chemistry is at work in your body every day of your life. In your arteries. In your kidneys. In your heart, your eyes, your skin, your nerves. In every cell, the sugar that your body uses for fuel is busily at work at this very moment, caramelizing your body through exactly the same chemical processes that caramelize onions or peanut brittle. Glycation math is simple: more sugar equals more AGEd proteins. Slowly, imperceptibly, AGE reactions create chemical handcuffs, which gum up your proteins, deactivate your enzymes, trigger unhealthy biochemical signaling in your cells, and damage your DNA. Aging you.

Allantoin: Delivers soothing properties.

Alpha Hydroxy Acid (AHA): Despite many questions about their safety, alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) and beta hydroxy acids (BHAs) have become widely used in recent years. AHAs are derived from fruit and milk sugars, and attract customers with their claims to reduce wrinkles and age spots, and help repair sun-damaged skin. (See “Alpha Hydroxy Acids” in the March-April 1998 FDA Consumer.)

FDA recommends that consumers take precautions with AHA and BHA products:

  • Test any AHA/BHA-containing product on a small area of skin before applying to a larger area.
  • Avoid the sun when possible.
  • Use an effective sunscreen when using an AHA-containing product, even if you haven’t used the product that day.
  • Follow use instructions on the label.
  • Do not exceed recommended applications.
  • Do not use on infants and children.

Alpha Hydroxy Tetronic Acid: Skin brightener that helps improve the color of the skin where applied. This is not a product for moles, beauty marks, port wine stains, or birthmarks and will not work on these genetic problems. It consists of a blend of fruit, milk, and sugar acids. It is a fragmented form of Vitamin C.

Alpha Lipoic Acid: A synthetic ingredient virtually the same as the one naturally produced by our bodies. It has a chemical compound similar to potatoes, so if a customer has an allergy to potatoes, strongly recommend patch tests, doctor’s approval, or not using the products. Also known as Thioctic Acid or Lipoic Acid. This is not similar to or the same as Alpha Hydroxy Acid. Topical application as part of an anti-aging treatment or acne treatment is patented by Dr Perricone, meaning no one else can legally use the technology without permission. Our Alpha Lipoic Acid is top quality and imported from Germany. The Lipoic we use is Alpha( L- ). This is the stable form for ingestion.
Amino acids: The building blocks of protein. Twenty amino acids are needed to build the various proteins used in the growth, repair, and maintenance of body tissues. Eleven of these amino acids can be made by the body itself, while the other nine (called essential amino acids) must come from the diet. The classification of an amino acid as essential or nonessential does not reflect its importance, because all 20 amino acids are necessary for health. Instead, this classification system simply reflects whether or not the body is capable of manufacturing a particular amino acid.
• Amino Acid Cysteine The Wrinkle Cure on page 140, Dr. Perricone recommends 600-1,200 mg of amino acid cysteine a day with Vitamin C.
• The essential amino acids are isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine.
• The nonessential amino acids are arginine, alanine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamine, glutamic acid, glycine, proline, serine, and tyrosine.

Animal Ingredients/By-products: The following products have animal ingredients/by-products:

  • All Spider Vein Products (MDI Complex is from marine extract)
  • All Supplements other than Physician’s Super Antioxidant – All contain at least gelatin. Some contain other animal ingredients like fish oil.
  • Alpha Lipoic Acid Eye Area Therapy – Contains MDI Complex, from Marine Extract.

Animal Testing: PerriconeMD does not test products on animals.

Antioxidants and Free Radicals: Antioxidants are nutrients that block some of the damage caused by Free radicals, which are by-products that result when our bodies transform food into energy. The build up of these by-products over time is largely responsible for the aging process and can contribute to the development of various health conditions such as cancer, heart disease, and a host of inflammatory conditions like arthritis.
Antioxidants work in several ways: they may reduce the energy of the free radical, stop the free radical from forming in the first place, or interrupt an oxidizing chain reaction to minimize the damage caused by free radicals.

Arachidonic Acid: Arachidonic acid is a fatty acid found in the cell walls that when released is metabolized into pro-inflammatory chemicals.

Aronia Berry: An antioxidant.

Ascorbic Acid: Also known as vitamin C – a front line of defense as an antioxidant and supporter of the immune system.

Ascorbyl Glucoside: A vitamin C derivative that controls blood circulation to reduce discolorations.

Ascorbyl Palmitate: Vitamin C Ester. Ascorbic Acid is bound with Palm Oil to create a non-acidic fat soluble version of Vitamin C. Topical applications for anti-aging and anti-inflammatory properties are patented by Dr Perricone, meaning no one else can legally use the technology without permission.

Atopic Dermatitis: A chronic (long-lasting) disease that affects the skin. “Dermatitis” means inflammation of the skin. “Atopic” refers to a group of diseases that are hereditary (run in families) and often occur together, including asthma, allergies such as hay fever, and atopic dermatitis. In atopic dermatitis, the skin becomes extremely itchy and inflamed, causing redness, swelling, cracking, weeping, crusting, and scaling. Atopic dermatitis is often referred to as “eczema,” which is a general term for the many types of dermatitis.

Astaxanthin: A powerful antioxidant that is derived from the natural colorant of red gold sea creatures. Its effectiveness is 10 times stronger than vitamin C and E.

B

Beta Hydroxy Acids: Maintains exfoliation which helps reduce the appearance of wrinkles.

Benzoyl Peroxide: An active ingredient in our Acne Treatment Gel Cream. Proven ingredient for fighting acne. Benzoyl Peroxide or Acne Treatment Gel should not be used mixed with our anti-aging products or Retin-A.

Beta Glucans/Xylitol: An ingredient combination that pulls moisture from the air and locks it into the skin. This duo is also responsible for reducing discolorations in the skin.
BHA – BHT: BHA and BHT are synthetic antioxidants. BHT is a commonly used antioxidant in pharmaceutical preparations. We add them to our products for their antioxidant properties and use in UV color protection and absorption to prevent discoloration of the products. It has been used safely in cosmetics and drugs for both adults and children for over 50 years. BHT is even sold as a supplement. So it is very doubtful there is any problem using this in a cosmetic product.

Bioenergetics: In our body, foods must be broken down into simpler compounds that are available to the cells. Cells, in turn, manufacture chemical energy, allowing the body to exert physical energy. The science of how the body extracts and uses energy from food is referred to as energy metabolism or bioenergetics.

Bio-Solv: Hydrosoluble softgels, which enable quick and optimum absorption of vitamins, minerals and herbal extracts.

Bisabolol: A compound derived from the chamomile plant. It is used as an anti-irritant (soothing agent).

Borage Oil: Omega 6 Essential Fatty Acid which helps to fight inflammation and add emolliency.

Botox: Botox is the brand name for injectable botulinum toxin type A, a protein created by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. This bacterium can be found in some spoiled food and releases a potent neurotoxin that can be fatal if consumed. However, injecting the synthesized protein into muscles weakens them only temporarily. The muscle-weakening action of Botox can smooth facial wrinkles and treat movement disorders of the eye and head, spasticity, migraines and excessive underarm sweating. Injecting Botox directly into muscles that control the eyelids reduces spasms in patients who suffer from blepharospasm, or rapid, uncontrollable blinking. When the condition is severe, patients can become functionally blind because their eyes never stay open long enough for them to see. In one small study of 14 such patients, 73 per cent of the treated eyelids returned to normal after Botox injections. Botox is also successful in its cosmetic uses; namely, reducing facial lines and wrinkles. As skin loses its elasticity with age. By relaxing the muscles that cause lines to form, botulinum toxin corrects the underlying cause of wrinkles and furrows. The effects of botulinum toxin fade after about three months. When used to treat eye movement disorders, some patients develop a droopy eyelid, while patients with neuromuscular disorders can have trouble swallowing.

Bovine: Please see Gelatin

C

Caffeine: A natural stimulant that reduces edema (puffiness) in the skin.

Carbohydrates: A large group of sugars, starches, celluloses, and gums that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in similar proportions.
The primary function of carbohydrates is to provide energy for the body, especially the brain and the nervous system. The body breaks down starches and sugars into a substance called glucose, which is used for energy by the body.

Catabolic: The effect of muscle shrinkage – the reverse of anabolic which means to build up muscle tissue.

Cell Plasma Membrane: The cell plasma membrane is a fatty environment of two layers of phospholipids which protect the integrity of the internal mechanisms of the cell.

Cetearyl alcohol: A fatty alcohol that functions as a moisturizing emollient.

Chelation: A process that binds the mineral element to an amino acid or a vitamin.
If you see “gluconate” (most common chelating agent) or “succinate” after the mineral element, then it is chelated. There are some other chelating agents as well. These mainly apply to our kits (i.e. Super Antioxidant caplet). Here are the mineral elements that are chelated : Zinc (Zinc Gluconate), Selenium (L-Selenomethionine), Copper (Copper Gluconate), Manganese (Manganese Gluconate), Chromium (Chromium Polynicotinate), and Boron (Calcium Borogluconate). Magnesium and Molybdenum are not chelated.

Chromium Polynicotinate: Also known as ‘Chromate’. This is the version of chromium that Dr Perricone recommends and includes in his supplements.

Cinnamon: A therapeutic spice that delivers calming and mood elevating benefits.
Coffee: Coffee of any kind is not recommended. Decaffeinated is not a viable option as it is not the caffeine that is a problem. Green/Black tea should be consumed instead.
Color and Consistency: Due to variations from batch to batch, color and consistency of PerriconeMD products may vary slightly. This does not alter the effectiveness of the product. All products pass a certificate of analysis which ensures the active ingredients are at the proper levels.

Coloring: In the Olive Oil Cleanser, the colors used in that product are not artificial. They are simply all-natural vegetable dyes that are not harmful. They are just in there for cosmetic purposes. The green, yellow, and red colorings are mixed together to give the cleanser that olive oil appearance. None of the other olive oil products contain any colors.

Collagen: Collagen (from kolla, which means glue in Greek) is an important component in the structural tissues of the human body. Collagen, a protein that occurs naturally in the body, makes up the structure underneath the skin. It holds together our cells and is used by the body to repair itself on a daily basis. As we age, we make less collagen, leading to wrinkles, less supple skin and brittle hair.

Cortisol: A hormone secreted by the adrenal glands. It is released when we’re under stress. High levels of cortisol can depress the immune system, thin the skin, are toxic to the brain, and can decrease muscle mass and increase fat storage.

Cosmeceutical: While the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act does not recognize the term “cosmeceutical”, the cosmetic industry uses this word to refer to cosmetic products that have medicinal or drug-like benefits. The Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act defines drugs as those products that cure, treat, mitigate or prevent disease or that affect the structure or function of the human body. While drugs are subject to a review and approval process by FDA, cosmetics are not approved by FDA prior to sale. If a product has drug properties, it must be approved as a drug.

Cosmetic Labeling: Federal regulations require ingredients to be listed on product labels in descending order by quantity. Consumers can check the ingredient listing to identify ingredients they wish to avoid. Based on the amount used, an ingredient such as water is usually found at the beginning of the product’s ingredient listing while color additives and fragrances, used in small amounts, are normally seen at the end of the ingredient listing. Cosmetic ingredient declaration regulations apply only to retail products intended for home use. Products used exclusively by beauticians in beauty salons and labeled “For Professional Use Only,” and cosmetic samples, such as those distributed free at hotels and department stores, are not required to include the ingredient declaration. However, these products must state the distributor, list the content’s quantity, and include all necessary warning statements.

Crow’s feet: A network of fine lines on the outer edge of the eye.
Cruelty Free: Implies that products have not been tested on animals. Most ingredients used in cosmetics have at some point been tested on animals so consumers may want to look for “no new animal testing,” to get a more accurate indication.

D

Dermis: The lower layer of skin that contains nerve endings, sweat glands, collagen and elastin fibers.

DHEA: Dehydroepiandrosterone – an adrenal gland hormone. PerriconeMD products do not contain this. They contain DMAE.

Dietary supplement: Congress defined the term “dietary supplement” in the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994. A dietary supplement is a product taken by mouth that contains a “dietary ingredient” intended to supplement the diet. The “dietary ingredients” in these products may include: vitamins, minerals, herbs or other botanicals, amino acids, and substances such as enzymes, organ tissues, glandulars, and metabolites. Dietary supplements can also be extracts or concentrates, and may be found in many forms such as tablets, capsules, softgels, gelcaps, liquids, or powders. They can also be in other forms, such as a bar, but if they are, information on their label must not represent the product as a conventional food or a sole item of a meal or diet. Whatever their form may be, DSHEA places dietary supplements in a special category under the general umbrella of “foods,” not drugs, and requires that every supplement be labeled a dietary supplement. In October 1994, the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) was signed into law by President Clinton. Before this time, dietary supplements were subject to the same regulatory requirements as were other foods. This new law, which amended the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, created a new regulatory framework for the safety and labeling of dietary supplements. Under DSHEA, a firm is responsible for determining that the dietary supplements it manufactures or distributes are safe and that any representations or claims made about them are substantiated by adequate evidence to show that they are not false or misleading. This means that dietary supplements do not need approval from FDA before they are marketed. Except in the case of a new dietary ingredient, where pre-market review for safety data and other information is required by law, a firm does not have to provide FDA with the evidence it relies on to substantiate safety or effectiveness before or after it markets its products. Also, manufacturers do not need to register themselves nor their dietary supplement products with FDA before producing or selling them. Currently, there are no FDA regulations that are specific to dietary supplements that establish a minimum standard of practice for manufacturing dietary supplements. However, FDA intends to issue regulations on good manufacturing practices that will focus on practices that ensure the identity, purity, quality, strength and composition of dietary supplements. At present, the manufacturer is responsible for establishing its own manufacturing practice guidelines to ensure that the dietary supplements it produces are safe and contain the ingredients listed on the label.

Dimethicone: When applied topically, silicone compounds have been shown to be safe for the past 40 years. They are widely used in baby care products, topical pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. We are not aware of any studies in main-stream medicine associating the kind of toxicity she mentions with topically-applied silicones.

DMAE: DMAE (dimethylaminoethanol) helps increase production of acetylcholine, the chemical that causes muscle contraction. Long-term studies show that people who regularly used a DMAE cream had fewer wrinkles and suppler skin. Dimethylaminoethanol an antioxidant membrane stabilizer. A nutrient that improves skin tone and sagging. Mixed with other antioxidants, amino acids and nutrients, it has a dramatic firming effect on the skin. Listed in ingredients as Dimethyl MEA. The DMAE is synthesized from safe sources and is not derived from fish. Some reports have alluded that DMAE is toxic waste – we do not support this notion. Virtually anything can be considered toxic under certain circumstances.

Dioxin: Please see Fish Oil

E

Elastin: Elastin fibers are protein fibers that, along with collagen, are responsible for the strength and texture of the skin.

Electro-Stimulation Therapy: A therapy where a device stimulates the repositioning of muscles in an anatomically lifted position.

Emollient: An ingredient that helps restore skin’s moisture balance by forming a protective film, trapping moisture in the skin. One of the primary ingredients of moisturizers.

Ester: A chemical compound that combines an acid with an alcohol.

F

FDA: Food & Drug Administration. Cosmeceuticals and supplements are not regulated by the FDA, meaning they do not have to be ‘FDA Approved’ like pharmaceuticals. Our products are not intended to treat any disease or medical condition.

Fish Oil:

  • Dioxin – 0.000000000002g/g of fish oil
  • Mercury – 0.0000000001g/g of fish oil
  • PCB – 0.00000000009g/g of fish oil

The supplier certifies the levels of these compounds are less than these specifications.

Flax seed oil: Flax, an ancient but little known seed, has recently gained worldwide recognition for its many nutritional attributes. Flax seed oil is the world’s richest vegetable source of omega-3 fatty acids. Oil extracted from flax seed is unique because it contains both essential fatty acids: alpha-linolenic, an omega-3 fatty acid, and linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid, in appreciable amounts.

Folic Acid: In ingredient to improve circulation in the skin.

Food Additives: Ingredients added to foods that can cause glycation which stiffens protein fibers. Aspertame, nitrates and MSG should be avoided.

Fullerenes: A powerful antioxidant that has the ability to carry other nutrients into the cell.

Fragrance: Ingredients that are complex mixtures of natural materials and such materials can exhibit adverse dermatological effects such as contact allergy and irritation. PerriconeMD uses both natural (essential oils that resemble fragrance ingredients in that they have appealing characteristic odors. However, such oils are pure substances, selected for their safety and other performance benefits.) and synthetic fragrances. Many products are fragrance-free – check labels before answering any product specific customer concerns.
Synthetically fragranced products include:

  • Lip Plumper – Orange Sherbet/Cream
  • Face Finishing Moisturizer – Rose
  • Concentrated Restorative Cream – Watermelon
  • Nutritive Cleanser – Baby Powder

Some people notice a ‘fishy’ aroma in PerriconeMD products. This is from the DMAE – DMAE is what gives fish their scent. There is no fish in the product, but anyone with allergies to fish should consult a doctor and/or patch test extensively before using the products.

Fragrance Free: Implication that a cosmetic product so labeled has no perceptible odor. Fragrance ingredients may be added to a fragrance-free cosmetic to mask any offensive odor originating from the raw materials used, but in a smaller amount than is needed to impart a noticeable scent.

G

Gaba: An ingredient that controls blood circulation to reduce discoloration.

Gelatin: The gelatin in our supplements is bovine. This means it is from cows and is not vegetarian. The Gelatin is of bovine origin and is certified from a BSE free country.

Green Tea Extract: An antioxidant that has calming and soothing benefits.

Glutathione: Glutathione, a tripeptide made up of three amino acids, is important in cell defense against free radicals and oxidative stress. The tripeptide regulates the chemical balance of the cell. Whenever a cell is under severe oxidative stress, glutathione comes to the rescue, but it gets used up quickly and levels drop. Low glutathione levels are seen in virtually every inflammatory state.
Gluten: A protein in all wheat, rye, barley and oat products. Our topicals are not gluten free. Our Supplements are gluten free. If any customer has an allergy, refer them with an ingredient list to their doctor.

Glycemic index: A ranking of carbohydrates based on their immediate effect on blood glucose (blood sugar) levels. It compares foods gram for gram of carbohydrate. Carbohydrates that breakdown quickly during digestion have the highest glycemic indexes. The blood glucose response is fast and high. Carbohydrates that breakdown slowly, releasing glucose gradually into the blood stream, have low glycemic indexes. What is the Significance of Glycemic Index?

  • Low GI means a smaller rise in blood glucose levels after meals
  • Low GI diets can help people lose weight
  • Low GI diets can improve the body’s sensitivity to insulin
  • Low GI foods can help re-fuel carbohydrate stores after exercise
  • Low GI can improve diabetes control
• Low GI foods keep you fuller for longer
  • Low GI can prolong physical endurance

Glycemic Load: The glycemic load (GL) is a relatively new way to assess the impact of carbohydrate consumption that takes the glycemic index into account, but gives a fuller picture than does glycemic index alone. A GI value tells you only how rapidly a particular carbohydrate turns into sugar. It doesn’t tell you how much of that carbohydrate is in a serving of a particular food. You need to know both things to understand a food’s effect on blood sugar. That is where glycemic load comes in. What is Glycemic Load?

  • Glycemic load builds on the GI to provide a measure of total glycemic response to a food or meal
  • Glycemic load = GI (%) x grams of carbohydrate per serving
  • One unit of GL ~ glycemic effect of 1 gram glucose
  • You can sum the GL of all the foods in a meal, for the whole day or even longer
  • A typical diet has ~ 100 GL units per day (range 60 – 180)
  • The GI database gives both GI & GL values

Glycemic Response: A measure of the food’s ability to elevate blood sugar. The glycemic response is influenced by the amount of food you eat, its fiber content, fat content or amount of added fat, and the way the food is prepared.

  • Highly glycemic carbohydrates are best consumed during and after exercise. They enter the bloodstream quickly and are readily available for fueling exercising muscles.
  • Low glycemic carbohydrates enter the bloodstream slowly and are best eaten before exercise. They provide sustained longer-term energy, and help maintain stable blood sugar levels during extended exercise periods (greater than one hour).

Glycolic acid: Reduces corneum layer thickening where excess dead skin cell buildup can be associated with many common skin problems. Glycolic acid acts by dissolving the internal cellular cement responsible for abnormal keratonization, facilitating the sloughing of dead skin cells. A gentle source of Alpha Hydroxy Acids derived from sugar cane. Glycolic acid can actually help bind moisture to the skin. This is an ingredient that can help produce a softer, healthier looking skin.
Grape Seed Extract: A natural antioxidant; supports healthy immune function, protects cells from free radical damage, treats vascular disorders and supports cardiovascular health, supports healthy inflammatory response.

  • Grape Seed Extract contains procyandolic oligomers (PCOs), also known as Proanthocyanidins. Grape seed extract is thought to exert a powerful, positive influence on blood vessels. Consequently, PCOs are a key ingredient in pharmaceuticals used in western Europe for vascular disorders. Grape Seed extract is both water and fat soluble and may therefore penetrate all types of cell membranes delivering powerful antioxidant protection. It is also one of the few antioxidants that can cross the blood brain barrier, potentially helping to protect brain cells from free radical damage.


H

High Glycemic Carbohydrates: Those foods that rapidly convert to sugar in the bloodstream, for example potatoes, white bread, mangoes and bananas are high glycemic carbs. When you eat high glycemic carbohydrates your insulin level spikes and that leads to skin wrinkling and sagging, weight gain and many other negative affects on the body

Human Growth Hormone: (HGH) is a true “youth” hormone. When growth hormone is released, many positive things happen in your body. HGH affects your ability to learn and your memory in general. HGH tends to reduce your body fat and increase lean muscle mass. Growth hormone increases bone density and maintains the health of all our vital organs, including the heart, lungs and kidneys. As we age, our body’s normal release of growth hormone decreases, which leads to muscle loss, increased body fat, poor memory and increased susceptibility to degenerative disease. To help combat the loss of growth hormone as we age, do not eat a high carbohydrate meal before bedtime as HGH is released when we sleep and the carbohydrates will inhibit release.

Hyperpigmentation: A common, usually harmless condition in which patches of skin become darker in color than the normal surrounding skin. This darkening occurs when an excess of melanin, the brown pigment that produces normal skin color, forms deposits in the skin. Hyperpigmentation can affect the skin color of people of any race. Age or “liver” spots are a common form of hyperpigmentation. They occur due to sun damage, and are referred to by doctors as solar lentigines. These small, darkened patches are usually found on the hands and face or other areas frequently exposed to the sun.
Freckles, age spots, and other darkened skin patches can become darker or more pronounced when skin is exposed to the sun. This happens because melanin absorbs the energy of the sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays in order to protect the skin from overexposure.

Hypoallergenic: Implication that products making this claim are less likely to cause allergic reactions. There are no prescribed scientific studies required to substantiate this claim. Likewise, the terms “dermatologist-tested,” “sensitivity tested,” “allergy tested,” or “nonirritating” carry no guarantee that they won’t cause skin reactions. PerriconeMD products are considered hypoallergenic – they are free from common allergens. This means the average person will not be allergic to the products.

  • Consumers concerned about allergic reactions from cosmetics should understand one basic fact: there is no such thing as a “nonallergenic” cosmetic–that is, a cosmetic that can be guaranteed never to produce an allergic reaction. However, cosmetics users who know they are allergic to certain ingredients can take steps to protect themselves. FDA regulations now require the ingredients used in cosmetics to be listed on the product label, so consumers can avoid substances that have caused them problems.

I

Inflammation: Skin is constantly assaulted from inside and out with elements that create inflammation in the cells: sun exposure, air pollution, harsh soaps and skin-care products, internal disease, stress, lack of sleep, sugar consumption and dehydration. The leading cause of inflammation is sugar and foods that rapidly convert to sugar in the blood stream. Pro-inflammatory conditions are the precursor to many diseases from Alzheimer’s to arthritis, heart disease to certain forms of cancer. Inflammation will break down collagen, among other things, which is the first step to creating wrinkles.

Ingredients: All PerriconeMD products have been thoroughly researched and tested for safety, quality and effectiveness. The ingredients chosen are both natural and synthetic. The ingredients are of a highly purified grade, and are used at safe levels. Much of them are commonly used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations, are FDA approved, and have a long history of safety.
International Unit (IU): A unit used to measure the activity (that is, the effect) of many vitamins and drugs. For each substance to which this unit applies, there is an international agreement specifying the biological effect expected with a dose of 1 IU. Other quantities of the substance are then expressed as multiples of this standard. Examples: 1 IU represents 45.5 micrograms of a standard preparation of insulin or 0.6 microgram of a standard preparation of penicillin. Consumers most often see IU’s on the labels of vitamin packages: in standard preparations the equivalent of 1 IU is 0.3 microgram (0.0003 mg) for vitamin A, 50 micrograms (0.05 mg) for vitamin C, 25 nanograms (0.000 025 mg) for vitamin D, and 2/3 milligram for (natural) vitamin E. Please note: for many substances there is no definite conversion between international units and mass units (such as milligrams). This is because preparations of those substances vary in activity, so that the effect per milligram of one preparation is different from that of another.

Isopropyl Palmitate: A moisturizing ingredient in the products. This is not Vitamin C Ester or a part of Ascorbyl Palmitate. Isopropyl Palmitate is a ubiquitous ingredient in topical dermatological products, both prescription and non-prescription, with a long history of safety and efficacy. Dr Perricone utilizes NF-grade Isopropyl Palmitate, which is a highly purified grade, in his products – this keeps with his standards of using nothing but the best.
Lauryl Glucoside: Found in the Nutritive Cleanser, it is the only ingredient derived from corn.
Lecithin: PerriconeMD products containing lecithin are derived from Soybeans. (CC301, CC302, 154, CC102, CC104, CC111, CC153, CC503, CC505, CC506 & Physician’s Super antioxidant)
Lemon and Cucumber Extract: Skin brighteners.

L

Licorice Extract: An anti-inflammatory skin lightener.

Light Therapy: A device that emits a color of light to reduce lines and wrinkles or heal acne.

Lipid: Provides conditioning benefits of fatty acids.

M

Maitake : Maitake seems to be one of the most extensively researched herbs and a number of research papers have been published by various institutes and universities. The health benefits demonstrated by Maitake include immune system support, normal blood pressure support, normal blood sugar metabolism and normal cholesterol support. Further laboratory studies and extensive clinical studies are under way in collaboration with leading research institutes both in the United States and in Japan. Maitake is indigenous to the north-eastern part of Japan. For hundreds of years, this rare and tasty mushroom has been prized in traditional Japanese herbology. This mushroom has a rippling form with no caps and grows in clusters at the foot of Japanese oak trees, giving it an image of butterflies dancing to the Japanese eyes, thus named “Maitake” literally “dancing mushroom”. Others say that Maitake is so named because people who found it in the deep mountains knew its delicious taste and health benefits and thus began dancing with joy. In fact, in the feudal era of Japan it was exchanged with the same weight of silver by local lords who in turn offered it to their big boss; the SHOGUN. The botanical name of Maitake is “Grifola frondosa” referring to a mythical beast which is half-lion and half-eagle. Maitake is the only edible mushroom among all Monkey’s Bench family. Sometimes it grows over 50 pounds. That is why this giant mushroom is called the “King of Mushrooms”.

Melatonin: Melatonin is a natural hormone that regulates the human biological clock. Melatonin is produced by the pineal gland, located within the brain. Levels of melatonin in the body fluctuate with the cycles of night and day. The highest melatonin levels are found at night.

Mercury: Please see Fish Oil

Microcurrent: Microcurrent is a low level of electrical current that works in harmony with the body to increase the natural levels of ATP (adenosine triphosphate-cellular energy stores). Studies indicate a 48 percent increase in elastin, 14 percent increase in collagen, 37 percent increase in blood circulation in just 20 days. Additionally, microcurrent has the ability to sculpt and lift facial muscles, raise eyebrows, relax deep-set expression lines and fill crow’s-feet. Microcurrent also helps products penetrate up to 70 percent more effectively, which offers instant results under the eye and crow’s-feel areas, creating a smoother, firmer, wrinkle-free appearance.

Microdermabrasion: The vacuum stimulation alone from microdermabrasion has been known to stimulate blood circulation and collagen production. A treatment will remove the top layer of the skin and promote new collagen and regrowth of younger-looking skin. Furrows and expression aging are eased, reducing the visual appearance of aging. Microdermabrasion is especially good for under the eyes and crow’s feet.

Microspheres: Micro-ceramic beads that act as fillers for the skin.

N

Natural: Implies that ingredients are extracted directly from plants or animal products as opposed to being produced synthetically. There is no basis in fact or scientific legitimacy to the notion that products containing natural ingredients are good for the skin. PerriconeMD products are naturally based, but are not all natural. To be all natural, preservatives would not be present, drastically reducing the shelf life and requiring refrigeration of the products.

N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine: The most effective way to boost Glutathione levels in the body, is a more stable form of L-Cysteine. N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine, known as “NAC” provides powerful immune support and also packs a powerful anti-toxin potential. Its ability to neutralize cell and DNA damaging free radicals can help slow down what many scientists point to as a key factor in the aging process. N-ACETYL L-CYSTEINE (NAC) or NAC is a more stable form of L-Cysteine because it has an acetyl group (CH3CO) attached. NAC has all the properties of L-Cysteine but is more water soluble and said to be more bioavailable than L-Cysteine. NAC may be the most cost effective way to boost Glutathione levels in the body. Glutathione is a very valuable peptide, but very expensive when bought as a supplement. It is best to use NAC to boost your glutathione levels. NAC has been shown to play a protective role against a variety of toxic hazards such as cigarette smoke, auto exhaust, certain herbicides, and overdoses of acetaminophen. It can also play a beneficial role in prostate and respiratory conditions. For example, NAC has well established antimucolytic (anti-mucous) properties and has been shown to increase mucocilary transport in smokers. What makes NAC stand out in the crowd of glutathione boosters is the fact that it is a stable amino acid that can retain up to six times the amount of the sulfur and sulfhydryl groups after digestion. Scientists believe that sulfur and sulfur compounds may be central to glutathione and its precursor N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NAC).

Neuropeptides: Neuropeptides are synthesized in a laboratory; they are not from any animal source. A chain of amino acids (proteins). See our Neuropeptide cream.

NonAcnegenic: Dr Perricone’s products are considered non-acnegenic. This means they do not cause acne on the average person’s skin. There is no industry standard as to what comprises ‘non-acnegenic’.

Non-comedogenic: Suggests that products do not contain common pore-clogging ingredients that could lead to acne. PerriconeMD products are considered non-comedogenic.

NTP Complex: A carrier or “neurotransmitter precursor” of DMAE.

O

Oat Protein: Used for the healthy maintenance of keratin such as hair.

Oil-Free: A few PerriconeMD treatment products are oil-free – check your labels before answering questions on the subject. More importantly, all are Mineral Oil Free. Oil is not necessarily a bad thing, despite the common myth. We utilize a variety of oils to fragrance the products and several to provide moisture to the skin. ‘Are your products comedeogenic or acnegenic’ is a better question than ‘Are your products oil-free.

Olive Fruit Oil: An essential fatty acid that provides antioxidant protection and emolliency.

Omega-3 Capsules: Norwegian Fish Oil – The Marine Lipid Concentrate is from ocean-caught fish – anchovies and/or mackerel and/or salmon.

Omega-3 Essential Fatty Acids: Fat is one of the nutrients your body requires along with proteins, carbohydrates and vitamins. The building blocks of fats and oils are called fatty acids. The fatty acids, known as essential fatty acids, are those fats we can’t make in our body. We have to obtain them from our food. Omega-3 essential fatty acids are found in cold water fish such as Alaskan salmon and also in flax seed and flax seed oil. They dramatically reduce the body’s production of inflammatory compounds. Omega 3 fatty acids need to be taken in the proper balanced ratio to Omega 6 – which is one omega 3 to two omega 6.

Omega 90.5

Omega 62

Omega 31

Omega – 3 (Alpha Linolenic Acid) ALA
Omega – 6 (Linolenic Acid) LA
Omega – 9 (Oleic Acid) OA – source Avocado, olive oil, safflower, etc. (monounsaturated)

Omega-9: A monounsaturated fatty acid present in all animal and vegetable fats. Oleic acid is the most common Omega 9 fatty acid. This fatty acid is essential, but it is not considered an EFA (essential fatty acid) because the human body can manufacture a limited amount of it if other EFA’s are present (so no recommendations for intake are given). Omega 9 is found in olive, canola, and rapeseed, peanut, safflower and sunflower oils; other sources include avocados, peanuts, peanut butter, nuts and seeds. It is found in most vegetable oils, so most people get much more than the suggested intake.

Oxidative Stress: Oxidative stress is the damaging condition that occurs when there is an excess of free radicals, a decrease in antioxidant levels, or both.

P

Palmitoyl Carnosine: A peptide with anti-glycating qualities to firm skin and reduce wrinkles caused by sugars in the system attaching to protein fibers rendering them still and inflexible.

Panthenol and Panthethine: B vitamins that work synergistically to provide humectant and moisturizing benefits. Used generally in hair care products.

Pheromones: Chemical messengers communicated between humans and animals.

Phosphatidylcholine: A natural compound that delivers emolliency to the skin. It is synthesized to mimic the lipid layer surrounding cells so the skin accepts it as it own for better penetration.

Pomegranate: An antioxidant.

Pycnogenol: A centuries-old healing compound from the bark of the maritime pine tree that is known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and brightening benefits for the skin.

R

Retin-A: A prescription Retinol product. Can be applied before applying our anti-aging products. We do not recommend the customer change their prescribed application without consulting a doctor.

Retinol: A retinoid considered a skin revitalizer. Retinol is reported to enhance skin radiance and treat conditions associated with chronological aging such as wrinkles and fine lines. It also is considered necessary for normal epidermal cell growth and differentiation, for regulating collagen synthesis, and for maintaining a more youthful skin condition.

Retinyl Palmitate: Retinol is a different compound from Retinyl palmitate. Specifically, Retinyl palmitate is an ester created by reacting Retinol with the fatty acid, palmitic acid. Inside the skin, it is necessary for Retinyl palmitate to be de-esterified and release Retinol, which then converts ultimately into the biologically active metabolite, Retinoic acid (Retin A, Renova). As you can see, Retinyl palmitate is one step further removed from this metabolite than Retinol, and considering the variability of the in-vivo bioconversion process, is considered a weaker retinoid than Retinol. (As quoted from Young Pharmaceuticals (JK)).

Reservatrol: Antioxidants derived from the skin of grapes.

Rice Bran Oil: A protein used for the maintenance of healthy keratin such as hair.

Rosacea: A chronic (long-term) disease that affects the skin and sometimes the eyes. The disorder is characterized by redness, pimples, and, in advanced stages, thickened skin. Rosacea usually affects the face. None of the PerriconeMD products treat or cure it. The ALA Face Firming Activator can help decrease the redness associated with Rosacea, but customers should consider seeking a dermatologist for treatment and diagnosis.

S

Salicylates: These are found in most plant products, especially willow bark, wintergreen, and meadowsweet. Dr Perricone does not believe that the levels of salicylates in our products will cause any problems in those who are not supposed to take them due to medication. Customer should bring the ingredient list to their doctor for approval.

Saturated Fats: Fatty acids that increase your risk for heart disease. They’re found primarily in animal fats such as dairy products, butter and red meat. Eating too many saturated fats is pro-inflammatory.

Sebum: The skin’s natural oil.

Sepi-White and Sepi-Calm: A soothing compound which inhibits melanin production to reduce discolorations.

Shelf Life (Expiration Date): The amount of time during which a cosmetic product is considered good under normal conditions of storage and use, depending on the product’s composition, packaging, preservation, etc. Expiration dates are, for practical purposes, a rule of thumb, and a product may expire long before that date if it has not been stored and handled properly.

Sodium Chloride: Salt. It is used in cleansing products as a viscosity booster and also as a rinse aid.

Sodium Hyaluronate: A powerful hydrating ingredient.

Sodium Laureth Sulfate: This is the safe cousin of Sodium Laurel Sulfate. It is commonly used in facial cleansers, baby washes, and shampoos. Reports are surfacing that the Laurel version can be harmful, but the Laureth version is typically considered safe.

Soy Free: Please see Lecithin

Soy Protein: Used for the maintenance of healthy keratin such as hair.

SPF (Sun Protection Factor): Measures the length of time a product protects the skin against reddening from UVB, compared to how long the skin takes to redden without protection. If it takes 20 minutes without protection to begin reddening, using an SPF 15 sunscreen theoretically prevents reddening 15 times longer – about 5 hours. (It may take up to 24 hours after sun exposure for redness to become visible.) To maintain the SPF, reapply sunscreen every two hours and right after swimming. While SPF is the universal measurement of UVB (Ultraviolet-B: Short-wave solar rays of 290-320 nanometers.) protection, no comparable standard exists for UVA (Ultraviolet -A: Long-wave solar rays of 320-400 nanometers). Scientists worldwide are working to develop a standardized testing and certification method to measure UVA protection. The Skin Cancer Foundation recommends SPFs of at least 15, which block 93 percent of UVB. While SPFs higher than 30 block only 4 percent more UVB, they may be advisable for sun-sensitive individuals, skin cancer patients, and people at high risk of developing skin cancer.

Supplement Testing: We test for both Lead & Mercury periodically. These tests are run on each of our oils. We are pleased to confirm that over several years of testing, all results have been below the individual detection limits for each. The detection limits are:

  • Lead – 0.05 -0.1 mg/kg (0.05 -0.1ppm)
  • Mercury – 0.005 mg/kg (0.005ppm) – As quoted from Tishcon (AC).

Sunflower Seed Extract: Provides UVA and UVB protection in hair care products.

StimulCell: A combination of peptides, lipids, and proteins derived from filtered skin stem cells to continue the rejuvenation process in the cell.

T

Taurine: An antioxidant that possesses anti-glycating benefits which reduces the risk of sugars attaching themselves to protein fibers there by rendering them stiff and inflexible causing loss of firmness and wrinkles.

Tetrahexyldecyl Ascorbate: (Vitamin C): A premium and potent form of vitamin C that stimulates collagen and elastin production within the cell.

Tocotrienols (VitaminE): A premium and more powerful form of vitamin E that protects and defends the cell against damage as well as making the surface of the skin appear healthy and smooth.

Tranexamic Acid: Controls blood circulation to reduce discolorations.

Trans Zinc Oxide: A mineral found in zinc oxide that deflects sun’s rays.
Triethanolamine (Trolamine): A chemical used in small amounts to adjust the pH (symbol pH stand for “potential of hydrogen”) of a product. It has been widely used in drug and cosmetic products safely for over 50 years. It is, for example, one of the key ingredients in shaving cream. PerriconeMD products use this to adjust pH (the relative “acidity” or “alkalinity” of the product) to the proper value to insure compatibility with the natural pH of the skin. It is a derivative of ammonia in the same sense that safe, natural amino acids are derived from ammonia, whereby ammonia is reacted with other compounds to create a new one with entirely different physical and chemical properties. [Consider common table salt, aka Sodium chloride. Did you know that it’s created by reacting sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, with hydrochloric acid? This is a good example of how different the by-products of chemical reactions can be from the original compounds that are reacted with each other.

pH ranges for products
Phosphatidyl E Face 7.5 – 8.5
Phosphatidyl E Hand & Bod 7.5 – 8.5
ALA Eye Area 6.6 – 6.8
ALA Nutritive Cleanser 6.5 – 7.5
ALA Body Toning Lotion 8.0 – 8.5
ALA Evening Facial Emolient 7.0 – 8.8
ALA Face Firming Activator 6.5 – 7.0
Spider Vein Face 5.0 – 6.0
Spider Vein Leg 5.0 – 6.0
Olive Oil Body Hydrator 7.0 – 8.0
Olive Oil Day Face Treatment 7.5 – 8.5
Olive Oil Face Hydrator 6.5 – 8.0
Olive Oil Gentle Cleanser 5.0 – 6.0
Olive Oil Night Face Treatment 7.5 – 8.5
VCE Concentrated Rest. Cream 3.0 – 4.5
VCE Amine Face Lift 6.5 – 7.0
VCE Citrus Facial Wash 6.5 – 7.5
Face Finishing Moisturizer 6.5 – 8.0

Tocopherols: Antioxidants found in vitamin E that disarm free radicals.

Tocotrienols: A natural derivative of palm fruit and rice bran. This is an extremely potent fraction of vitamin E, also known as “high potency E” (HPE). It is a much more powerful antioxidant than vitamin E components currently available as supplements or in topical preparations.

Tyrosine: This ingredient has not been shown to increase pigmentation. As quoted from Young Pharmaceuticals (JK).

U

Urea: This is one of the oldest organic compounds known to man, and it’s a part of almost every living organism. PerriconeMD products utilize it at levels where it can act as a gentle skin moisturizing agent, helping to soften keratin and bind water to the skin. Derived from Nitrogen.

V

Vitamin B 3: A powerful antioxidant that helps to purify the skin.

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid): Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin needed for the growth and repair of tissues in all parts of the body. It is necessary in the formation of collagen, an important protein used to make skin, scar tissue, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels. Vitamin C is essential for the healing of wounds, and for the repair and maintenance of cartilage, bones, and teeth. Vitamin C is one of many antioxidants. The body does not manufacture vitamin C on its own, nor does it store it. It is therefore important to include plenty of vitamin C-containing foods in one’s daily diet. Large amounts of vitamin C are used by the body during any kind of healing process, whether it’s from an infection, disease, injury, or surgery. In these cases extra vitamin C may be needed.
Vitamin C Ester: Patented vitamin C ester, exclusive to PerriconeMD, is a fat-soluble form of vitamin C, which means it can easily penetrate the skin in topical form. It is gentle for all skin types and will remain stable at full potency for two years. Also known as Ascorbyl palmitate. Do not confuse vitamin C ester with Ester C.

Vitamin E: An antioxidant that protects cells against free radical damage.

Vitamin K: A vitamin that helps to reduce dark circles around the eye area.

One thought on “Glossary

  1. Pingback: Perricone MD – High Potency Evening Repair

*